Sharpening Part 4 – ‘Nando and the Sword Sharpener

And this is from my heart
Which is deep inside my body:
It’s better to look good
Than to feel good

Fernando

This post is a little longer and more roundabout than my previous posts, but I wanted to share with you some of Japan’s history, and examples of this country’s most fabulous art as produced by its blacksmiths and professional sharpeners. But before I get into that, I would like to share some relevant words of wisdom from Hollywood’s wisest man.

Billy Crystal in Fernando’s Hideaway

The handsome gentleman in the picture is Fernando. He is neither a blacksmith nor a sharpener of tools or weapons, but his insight into physical beauty and words of wisdom about happiness are pertinant to sharpening, as we shall see below. If you are not familiar with ‘Nando, I suggest you google him or view a video or two on Youtube.

So what does our dapper Latin Lover have to do with sharpening? And swords?

As ‘Nando taught the world, a wise person will not equate looking good with feeling good. Likewise, you would be wise to not confuse a blade’s appearance with its performance. Indeed, a blade that looks as sharp as the skinny end of nothing may not actually cut very well in some applications.  A good example is Japanese swords. Let me tell you a true story to illustrate my point.

When I was a University student in Japan, I was privileged to be entrusted with a number of swords that belonged at the time to the late Dr. Walter Compton, Chairman of Miles Laboratories and the inventor of Alka-Seltzer. He was a wealthy man who had a huge collection of swords obtained while an officer for the US military in Japan immediately after the war when Allied forces required the defeated Japanese people, on pain of death, to surrender all swords, civilian and military. Of course, many valuable and rare family heirlooms were surrendered or forcefully confiscated. Supposedly they all went to the bottom of Tokyo Bay in bunches, or were melted for scrap. But we know better, don’t we.

Towards the end of his life, Dr.Compton put a lot of money into having his better swords professionally sharpened, new shirasaya scabbards and furniture made, and formally evaluated in preparation for donating them to the Boston Museum of Art, where many of them reside today. Sadly, some were auctioned off without his permission. “The feckless sons of wealthy men” is the operative phrase in this case, I fear.

I assisted Dr. Compton’s representative by transporting over 70 of these swords to and from Japan and performing the necessary legwork to accomplish these goals inside Japan. During those years I held in my hands and feasted my eyes on rare and beautiful blades of great historical value several of which would have easily been designated National Treasures if they had been intended to remain in Japan (“National Treasures” may not leave Japan). 

During those years I spent a lot of time meeting, questioning, and requesting services of the best sword sharpeners in Japan, and learned a lot about swords, stones, and sharpening. Dr. Compton’s reputation was such, and his swords were of such rarity and high quality that I had no difficulty persuading the very best craftsmen to work on them or speak with me including Mr. Okisato Fujishiro.

Interestingly, in Japan such craftsmen are called “Togishi” (研師), an unambiguous word that can only be translated as “sharpener.” However, in the West these same Japanese craftsmen are called “ Sword Polishers.” In the post-war context, this actually may be more accurate than the Japanese term.

A very subtle, high quality sword tip brought to life by the arts of the Sword Sharpener. Notice the peaceful elegant hamon (wavy milky pattern at the cutting edge oriented towards the top of the photograph), the grain of the steel just below the hamon, and the burnished polish surrounding the fuller. Notice also the clean delineation where the blade tip, the “boshi,” begins. Very nice work.

Traditional Japanese society before the elimination of the caste system had 4 main divisions labeled  “Shi No Ko Sho,” meaning, in descending order, Warrior (samurai) Farmer, Craftsman, and Merchant at the bottom. The Emperor, Court Nobles, and Shoguns were above these strata, although only the Shogun possessed any actual power of the three. The man with the sword makes the rules, and those without weapons do what they are told or die. Such it has always been.

Blacksmiths and sword sharpeners were both in the craftsman caste, but the sword sharpener was above the swordsmith in rank. Depending on their support among the warrior caste, and with the generous application of yellow metallic lubricant, both swordsmiths and sword sharpeners occasionally obtained noble rank, an honor to which most other craftsmen, farmers, and merchants could not aspire My point is that sword sharpeners, while of low caste, often had a perceived rank higher than their craftsman position would suggest.

Why was the Japanese sword sharpener of higher rank than the swordsmith? I haven’t seen documentation from back in the day confirming it, but I suspect it is because the sharpener turns the swordsmith’s plain steel blade into a thing of jewel-like sculptural beauty that almost seems alive. One only has to see a sword blade fresh from the blacksmith’s shop and compare it with the same sword after the sword sharpener’s ministrations to understand.

The Nikko Sukezane sword, a designated National Treasure of Japan
Related image
This sword is known as the “Nikko Sukezane,” Nikko for the temple commemorating the Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康, January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) where it is stored, and Sukezane (助真 meaning “Aid the Truth) for the name of the smith who forged it for the Kamakura Shogunate (1185~1333). The blade’s shape and crystalline pattern above the hamon are characteristic of Sukezane’s work. This sword’s brother was in my care for about 2 years while it was being polished and appraised in Tokyo.
大般若長光-画像2
This sword is another of Japan’s National Treasures. It was forged by a swordsmith name Nagamitsu (長光)during the same time period as the Sukezane above. The tang (nakago) is corroded by exposure to bare hands over a period of around 700 years. Multiple holes were drilled in the tang to accomodate different kinds of hilts during its lifetime. I also had a sword by this same smith and of very similar appearance in my care for about one year, although it was not owned by Dr. Compton.
A different Nagamitsu sword, also listed as a National Treasure. An unusually healthy example.

I have even witnessed a skilled sword sharpener create a beautiful hamon (a pattern formed on the edge of a sword by the steel’s crystalline structure) on a sword forged by a famous smith that had lost the crystalline structure necessary to form an actual hamon. While a deception of sorts, the intention was not to deceive for profit (the sword was donated to a museum), but to return an unusual and historically important sword to its former beautify, a glory that would have been lost but for this sword polisher’s exceptional skills.

A dramatic chouji midare hamon in a modern sword. The pattern exists because of the changing crystaline structure of the blade that results from the differential heat treatment process performed by the blacksmith, but it is only visible and beautiful because of the sword sharpener’s stones and his skill with them. Is the blade sharp? Don’t judge a blade’s performance by its polish.

If we liken the swordsmith with his forge and hammer to the quarry worker cutting marble from the mountain, then the sword sharpener is Michelangelo cutting the Pietà with his chisels and files. Both craftsmen work on the marble and blade respectively, and both are essential. The sculptor uses steel to bring stone to life, while the sword sharpener uses stone to bring steel to life.

chojimidare.jpg
Another dramatic hamon in a modern sword.

But despite these artistic abilities, modern “Sword Polishers” have no interest in and make no effort to actually make a sword blade cut well. Indeed, in some cases, they actually intentionally dull the blade so it can’t cut, thereby making it safer. This intentional vandalism is called “habiki.”

A different style of hamon pattern on a blade with a different grain pattern. Notice the different colors and lines inside the hamon. All these tiny details have names, are categorized and studied intensely by aficionados. All things equal, this sort of pattern and color is considered to be more elegant and desirable than the two more dramatic hamon pictured above. An extremely deep rabbit hole, I assure you.

Here is the key point I want you to understand: Despite the long years of apprenticeship, advanced skills learned, and gallons of blood unintentionally leaked by sword sharpeners, the frank sword sharpeners I have spoken with all admitted that, of all the craftsmen in Japan that used edged tools, woodworkers like carpenters, cabinetmakers, and joiners routinely create sharper blades despite those blades not appearing as sharp as swords. This is consistent with my direct experience of handling over 70 swords before and after being worked on by sword sharpeners.

While there is great pleasure to be found in polishing a plane or chisel or knife blade to levels of great beauty, do not make the mistake of equating appearance with performance.

Appearance aside, and looking strictly at cutting performance, will a chisel or plane or knife blade skillfully sharpened on a 15,000 grit stone cut better and longer than if sharpened on an 8,000 grit stone? In the case of woodworking blades and kitchen knives, no it won’t. In fact, due to higher levels of friction in the cut, it will certainly not cut wood as well. More on this subject later.

Hidarino Ichihiro Oiirenomi. The hazy silver of the hard steel hagane lamination and the cloudy grey of the softer iron jigane lamination, combined with the shape and upward curvature of the corners of the lamination are indicative of unexcelled craftsmanship by the blacksmith, superior skills of the sharpener, and excellent stones. Such details are considered sublimely beautiful to tool connoisseurs. But will the edge cut well? We can’t tell from this photo.

Keep in mind that the stones used to apply the beautiful polish and accentuate the hamon on Japanese swords are different from those used to sharpen woodworking tools. For instance, the uchigumori stones sword polishers use are small slices of very soft stone glued to paper using urushi lacquer, and are only 3,000~5,000 grit. These small slips of stone are rubbed on the sword blade using thumb and fingertips.

Here is a link to a blog showing Mr. Fujishiro, son of one of the sword sharpeners I employed back in the day, making and using these thin slices of stone.

Tools are designed to perform specific tasks. Although it could do the job, more or less, you wouldn’t use a crescent wrench to stir spaghetti sauce on the stovetop would you? A longish spoon just might work better. Does a sword’s edge need to be extremely sharp to cut the enemy effectively? No, it doesn’t because the sword’s speed, impact force, and swordman’s technique influence its cutting effectiveness much more than sharpness. So sword sharpeners have always been more focused on edge durability, resistance to chipping, and appearance than absolute sharpness. In modern times, when swords are almost never used to cut living flesh outside of Saudi Arabia, the blade’s appearance may be critical, but sharpness is not a practical concern.

Another example is food preparation knives. A chef’s knife looks terribly sharp, and as it slices tomatoes and fillets fish we can see that it cuts well. But how sharp is it really? In comparison with a joiner’s plane blade, not really that sharp. But both tools are exactly suited to the job assigned them.

柳刃包丁(刺身包丁)
The sashimi knife is made long to facilitate long draw-strokes that cut the fish cleanly. The chef applies little downward pressure which would rupture the cells ruining the flavor of the tuna sashimi. Yes, a properly sharpened knife and expert technique make a difference in flavor, just another reason why the Japanese are obsessed with sharp things.

The chef’s knife is most effectively used in slicing or drawing motions, much as expert swordsmen use their weapons against enemies. In this style of cut, a smooth and uniform cutting edge does not perform as well as a more ragged, serrated edge as seen at the microscopic level. Therefore, there is little if any practical benefit (assuming beauty is not practical) to be obtained by sharpening a kitchen knife beyond 1,000 or 2,000 grit. In fact, at least in Japan, these are the upper-limit of stones in daily use by professional chefs of all varieties. Yes, and that includes sushi chefs.

But don’t misunderstand my point: In the case of both swords and yanagiba hocho knives, the bevel angle must be correct for both the blade being used and the material being cut, and the microscopic edge must be a clean intersection of planes. If you get these two factors wrong, a crescent wrench might work just as well.

The other point I want to make is that, while I enjoy using high-level skills to create a very sharp blade with a beautiful appearance, such a blade will not perform better than an identical blade of equal sharpness but with a less polished appearance, and the extra time and money spent on improving outward appearance is wasted on bread and butter work. 

Since Hollywood celebrities have the answers to all the world’s problems (at the cost of other people’s money, labor and freedom, of course) perhaps our quest for the sharp edge can benefit from the wisdom of the famous Latin lover ‘Nando, Tinseltown’s most elegant star. ‘Nando once shared his father’s advice that it is “better to look good than to feel good.” Accordingly, perhaps we should all go crazy nuts and polish our blades like beautiful but dull museum swords and wear waistcoats and cravats as we cut sliding dovetails and plane door stiles. After all, one must be ready for every photo op. In this way, our woodworking blades may be worthy of ‘Nando’s highest praise: “You, dahling, you look mahvelous, absolutely mahvelous.”

Fernando Lamas in “The Merry Widow.” The crease in his pant leg could slice bacon.

No, on second thought, while there is much one can learn from Fernando’s elegant philosophy, his standards of beauty and suffering are too high for me. I would rather be a simple joiner or cabinetmaker in stained work clothes that has the ability to make a blade exceptionally beautiful but chooses not to expend the time and cost required to do so most of the time, rather than someone who doesn’t because they can’t.

Although Fernando has a pressing appointment for a tango lesson he must give (discretion prevents me from naming the young lady he is pressing) and won’t be providing further insight, our adventures in sharpening Japanese woodworking tools will continue in Part 5 of this series.

Let’s meet at Tsukiji for sushi afterwards.

YMHOS

Links to Other Posts in the “Sharpening” Series

Sharpening Japanese Woodworking Tools Part 1

Sharpening Part 2 – The Journey

Sharpening Part 3 – Philosophy

Sharpening Part 4 – ‘Nando and the Sword Sharpener

Sharpening Part 5 – The Sharp Edge

Sharpening Part 6 – The Mystery of Steel

Sharpening Part 7 – The Alchemy of Hard Steel 鋼

Sharpening Part 8 – Soft Iron 地金

Sharpening Part 9 – Hard Steel & Soft Iron 鍛接

Sharpening Part 10 – The Ura 浦

Sharpening Part 11 – Supernatural Bevel Angles

Sharpening Part 12 – Skewampus Blades, Curved Cutting Edges, and Monkeyshines

Sharpening Part 13 – Nitty Gritty

Sharpening Part 14 – Natural Sharpening Stones

Sharpening Part 15 – The Most Important Stone

Sharpening Part 16 – Pixie Dust

Sharpening Part 17 – Gear

Sharpening Part 18 – The Nagura Stone

Sharpening Part 19 – Maintaining Sharpening Stones

Sharpening Part 20 – Flattening and Polishing the Ura

Please share your insights and comments with everyone in the comments section below. If you have questions or would like to learn more about our tools, please use the question form located immediately below.

Sharpening Part 3 – Philosophy

A wild boar was sharpening his tusks upon the trunk of a tree in the forest when a fox came by and asked, Why are you doing that, pray? The huntsmen are not out today and there are no other dangers at hand that I can see. True, my friend, replied the Boar, but the instant my life is in danger, I shall need to use my tusks. There will be no time to sharpen them then.”

Aesop (621~565 BC)
Always ready for battle

It’s nice to have a philosophy on a subject because it helps one distill random thoughts down to the essentials.

Allow me to explain my philosophy about sharpening woodworking tools, not because it is charming and unique, and not because you should emulate it, but because it will provide insight into the things I have written and will write about sharpening on this blog and elsewhere. Use it to calibrate your BS meter. It is often neck-deep when people talk about sharpening stuff.

My philosophy regarding sharpening was shaped by my experience as a carpenter, contractor, commercial cabinetmaker, and joiner working under pressure, against a clock, sometimes with a boss watching with eagle eye, and often in front of customers, not as a hobbyist fiddling around in a garage workshop. Married young with a growing family to support, I quickly discovered that children eat constantly and in ever-increasing quantities, so efficiency was and is important to me. 

Efficiency was also important to the Clients who hired me. Sharpening and maintaining tools was indeed part of the job, but from the Client’s viewpoint, it was wasted time, so it was important to minimize time spent fiddling with tools during the work day. I followed the example of craftsmen I respected and started the day with sharp tools in good working order, and kept spare planes and chisels sharpened and ready to go as backup.

Self-employment hammered into me the monetary value of time. It also taught me quality sharpening stones and tools are expensive and wear out, and that to feed wife and babies every day I had to work efficiently to minimize time and money expended on maintaining tools, while maximizing the amount of work I accomplished between sharpening sessions. 

I developed a strong dislike, nay hatred, for blades that fail, dull quickly, or take too much time and effort to sharpen. I loathe them not just because they are irritating, but because they waste my time and money. Even considering the higher initial cash outlay, the cost-effectiveness of handmade, professional-grade tools in helping my mind and hands feed the family became as obvious as a burning road flare on a midnight highway.

You, Gentle Reader, may not feel the time and financial pressures that professionals do, but learning how to sharpen your tools more efficiently will make woodworking less frustrating, more profitable, and more enjoyable.

What is your philosophy?

Sharpening a chisel at the jobsite, then back to work, jiggety-jog.

The journey will continue in Part 4 with wisdom from a celebrity and pictures of pretty swords.

YMHOS

Links to Other Posts in the “Sharpening” Series

Sharpening Japanese Woodworking Tools Part 1

Sharpening Part 2 – The Journey

Sharpening Part 3 – Philosophy

Sharpening Part 4 – ‘Nando and the Sword Sharpener

Sharpening Part 5 – The Sharp Edge

Sharpening Part 6 – The Mystery of Steel

Sharpening Part 7 – The Alchemy of Hard Steel 鋼

Sharpening Part 8 – Soft Iron 地金

Sharpening Part 9 – Hard Steel & Soft Iron 鍛接

Sharpening Part 10 – The Ura 浦

Sharpening Part 11 – Supernatural Bevel Angles

Sharpening Part 12 – Skewampus Blades, Curved Cutting Edges, and Monkeyshines

Sharpening Part 13 – Nitty Gritty

Sharpening Part 14 – Natural Sharpening Stones

Sharpening Part 15 – The Most Important Stone

Sharpening Part 16 – Pixie Dust

Sharpening Part 17 – Gear

Sharpening Part 18 – The Nagura Stone

Sharpening Part 19 – Maintaining Sharpening Stones

Sharpening Part 20 – Flattening and Polishing the Ura

Please share your insights and comments with everyone in the comments section below. If you have questions or would like to learn more about our tools, please use the question form located immediately below.

Sharpening Part 2 – The Journey

You don’t have a soul, Doctor. You are a soul. You have a body, temporarily.” 

Walter M. Miller Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz
Related image

Life is not a race. It’s a hard journey along many paths all leading to a single gateway.

What matters in this journey are the friends and family that travel with us, the kind deeds we do, the joy we share, the things we learn along the way, and the quality of our souls at the journey’s end. It’s no coincidence that these are all that will remain with us after we pass through the gateway.

Woodworking is both something we learn and a source of joy during this journey. For many it is a way to keep body and soul connected.

Travelers on the path to becoming excellent woodworkers learn early that dull tools will not and cannot make excellent wooden products regardless of the skill of the hand and eye that manipulates them.

Indeed, dull tools are not simply inefficient; I believe they are an impediment to good work because, being an extension of the user’s mind and hands, a dull tool will often darken the mind and leaden the hand of even an accomplished woodworker.

It is no coincidence that for millennia the first thing apprentices were taught once they were permitted to handle valuable tools was how to sharpen them properly. It has always been the first and most important woodworking skill.

Anyone who aspires to become an accomplished woodworker and more than an artisan or machinist must obtain minimal sharpening skills. All other woodworking accomplishments flow from this bedrock skill. This attitude has thousands of years of history behind it.

In our time the prevalence of machinery with built-in precision and blades driven by motors and sharpened by others has made it possible for those lacking even basic sharpening skills to represent themselves as craftsmen. Although they may be skilled artisans, I believe such individuals are less craftsmen and more machinery operators.

I believe, perhaps because the men I learned from and respected also believed, that free-hand sharpening is the way a skilled craftsman maintains his tools. My experience and observations over many years support the validity of this belief and the efficiency of the results. It is consistent with my work-driven philosophy about sharpening I will explain in more detail in the next post in this series.

Sharpening a blade free-hand is a zen-like activity. It requires observation. It requires muscle memory. It requires consistency. It requries composure. It requires meditative focus. And at the pinnacle, it requires one to feel with hands and hear with ears a place that cannot be seen, a place where destruction creates order. A place where nothing becomes something.

Some will disagree with my beliefs about free-hand sharpening, especially the machinist-types, those disinclined to remove their “training wheels,” the scribblers and gurus promising instant results in a few hours for the price of a book, DVD, or class, and the purveyors of sharpening jigs, of course. No mystery there.

When accomplished woodworkers gather in the presence of edged tools, they will always be curious about the quality of other men’s tools. In Japan, it is considered rude to pick up another man’s tools and examine the edges, or even to look at them too hard, but the desire is always there nonetheless because it is human nature to compare oneself to one’s peers. 

Indeed, much can be learned about a man’s quality standards and skill from his blades. Perhaps the condition of his tools can give a tiny glimpse into his character. Who can say?

What do your tools say about you? They are terrible gossips, you know. (ツ)

The journey will continue in Part 3 with wisdom from a celebrity and pictures of pretty swords.

Tianmen Gate, China. 999 steps in the stairway.

YMHOS

Links to Other Posts in the “Sharpening” Series

Sharpening Japanese Woodworking Tools Part 1

Sharpening Part 3 – Philosophy

Sharpening Part 4 – ‘Nando and the Sword Sharpener

Sharpening Part 5 – The Sharp Edge

Sharpening Part 6 – The Mystery of Steel

Sharpening Part 7 – The Alchemy of Hard Steel 鋼

Sharpening Part 8 – Soft Iron 地金

Sharpening Part 9 – Hard Steel & Soft Iron 鍛接

Sharpening Part 10 – The Ura 浦

Sharpening Part 11 – Supernatural Bevel Angles

Sharpening Part 12 – Skewampus Blades, Curved Cutting Edges, and Monkeyshines

Sharpening Part 13 – Nitty Gritty

Sharpening Part 14 – Natural Sharpening Stones

Sharpening Part 15 – The Most Important Stone

Sharpening Part 16 – Pixie Dust

Sharpening Part 17 – Gear

Sharpening Part 18 – The Nagura Stone

Sharpening Part 19 – Maintaining Sharpening Stones

Sharpening Part 20 – Flattening and Polishing the Ura

Please share your insights and comments with everyone in the comments section below. If you have questions or would like to learn more about our tools, please use the questions form below.

Sharpening Japanese Woodworking Tools Part 1

It is well with me only when I have a chisel in my hand

Michelangelo 1475-1564
Hidari no Ichihiro Oiirenomi

This is the first in a series of posts that will describe the sharpening procedures I use and recommend for Japanese plane and chisel blades.  

This long series of posts is not comprehensive, but I hope it will at least remove some of the confusing fog that seems to swirl around the process of sharpening Japanese woodworking blades.

I didn’t learn the techniques outlined in this document from books, magazines, DVDs, tool retailers/importers/distributors, the internet, or even woodworking classes. They are the result of hard experience working with, and lessons learned from, professional craftsmen in Japan over a period of some 30 years, sometimes working as a professional woodworker, and other times working as an employee of two of Japan’s largest “super” general contractors.

This series of posts has 4 objectives: To save you (1) time, and (2) money, and to make your Japanese blades (3) sharper, and (4) cut longer. These benefits are worth obtaining if you are serious about woodworking, but the requisite attention to detail and manual skills may not come easy to some. 

Indeed, you may need to unlearn bad habits, and develop new habits, skills and muscle memory in order to achieve these objectives. This is not a 90 minute process but will take months, maybe years. It certainly took me years to unlearn my bad habits and develop the necessary skills. These tips should make the process more efficient for you.

Of course these are not the only viable solutions available. Many woodworkers are self-taught nowadays and learn how to sharpen from books, magazines, videos, and classes, and have developed methods that work well for them. I am not minimizing those successes, merely proposing methods to further advance their skills.

However, be aware that several of the techniques described herein may directly contradict methods taught by the gurus that make a living scribbling, making videos, and teaching classes about woodworking. These guys achieve popularity and financial success by helping amateurs get better results very quickly after reading only a few pages in their $29.99 book, or attending their 2-hour class. To maintain their popularity and income, the techniques some (but not all) of them promote must be dumb-as-dirt simple, and are often shortcuts and gimmicks yielding “instantaneous gratification,” without the need to actually develop real skills. 

Unlike amateurs satisfied with superficial results, professionals need real skills that yield consistent long-term results. 

e0248405_1553630.jpg

Don’t be shocked, but I am not offering 90 minute gratification in exchange for your money.  I have no “click goals, ” or “SEO strategy” to deploy; I don’t care if you “like” me, “subscribe” to my YouTube channel” (I don’t have one), or buy access to my online tutorials (don’t do those either). The advice I offer is free, but if you prefer gimmicks to skills, the techniques described here are not for you. 

Do I have a profit motive? Nope, this information is free. I am not a sneaky corporate shill trying to sell books, magazines, videos, advertising space, banners, sharpening stones, or heaven forfend, powertools with laser sights. I have never been lent or given a tool in exchange for a nice review, or been wined, dined, laid or paid to write good things about crappy tools. 

Over the years, my professional needs and curiosity have lead me to purchase literally hundreds of planes and chisels made by many blacksmiths and companies. The keyword here is purchase. With my own money. Not a single one was ever given or loaned to me. Some I later sold, the good ones I kept. The two points I want to make are that I put my money where my mouth is; and that I have no financial conflict of interest.

I have several motivations for writing and sharing this information. One is simple convenience. Over the years, people have asked me how to sharpen Japanese tools, and I have explained the process in letters, emails, and in person many times. This document is a collection of my scribblings on the subject over several decades, and is intended to make it easier to explain the process.

Another motivation is to ensure that the people who buy the small number of hand-forged tools I sell know how to properly sharpen them, so that those tools will provide them long, productive, high-performance service. Tools have feelings too.

But my primary motivation is to fulfill a promise I made to freely share the techniques I learned from the many carpenters, woodworkers, blacksmiths, tool makers and professional sharpeners in Japan who taught me. In exchange for this free advice all I ask of you, Gentle Reader, is an open mind, and eager hands. Please, don’t cut either of them.

This adventure will continue in Part 2. But be forewarned, the price of admission may double.

YMHOS

Links to Other Posts in the “Sharpening” Series

Sharpening Japanese Woodworking Tools Part 1

Sharpening Part 2 – The Journey

Sharpening Part 3 – Philosophy

Sharpening Part 4 – ‘Nando and the Sword Sharpener

Sharpening Part 5 – The Sharp Edge

Sharpening Part 6 – The Mystery of Steel

Sharpening Part 7 – The Alchemy of Hard Steel 鋼

Sharpening Part 8 – Soft Iron 地金

Sharpening Part 9 – Hard Steel & Soft Iron 鍛接

Sharpening Part 10 – The Ura 浦

Sharpening Part 11 – Supernatural Bevel Angles

Sharpening Part 12 – Skewampus Blades, Curved Cutting Edges, and Monkeyshines

Sharpening Part 13 – Nitty Gritty

Sharpening Part 14 – Natural Sharpening Stones

Sharpening Part 15 – The Most Important Stone

Sharpening Part 16 – Pixie Dust

Sharpening Part 17 – Gear

Sharpening Part 18 – The Nagura Stone

Sharpening Part 19 – Maintaining Sharpening Stones

Sharpening Part 20 – Flattening and Polishing the Ura

Please share your insight, questions or comments in the comments section below. If you would like to learn more about our tools, please use the contact form located immediately below.


The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 11 – The Tsuba Nomi Guard Chisel (鍔鑿)

“The beginning of wisdom is to call things by their proper name.”

Confucius

The “Tsuba” in Tsuba Nomi is the Chinese character 鍔 which means “guard” as in a sword or knife guard.

Two nubs attached to opposing sides of the blade just below the handle look like the guard for a knife or sword. This chisel is driven with a hammer to quickly create a pilot hole for nails or screws. The blade becomes tightly wedged into the wood, but by striking up on these projections with a steel hammer, the blade can be extracted.

This unique chisel comes with blades with round, square, or rectangular cross-sections.

Square and rectagular blades usually have a chisel-point beveled on two sides, but sometimes are beveled on just one side. Round blades may have simple pointed ends, but sometimes they have short triple tines to drive the crushed wood fibers into the hole.

While this chisel severs the wood fibres, unlike an auger, drill, or gimlet, it does not remove material from the hole. The ends of the severed fibers are angled down into the hole, and over time and exposure to humidity and water, will partially swell back to their original shape locking nails in tightly.

This chisel is still used in the wooden shipbuilding industry, but other than that sees very little practical use nowadays. I own one but have have never used it in anger.

A Double-tsuba Nomi
Hole made by a Tsuba Nomi with a forged nail partially inserted. Used to to edge-join boards, this method is typical in traditional Japanese wooden shipbuilding
Far Left: Double Tsuba Nomi. Center: Single Tsuba Nomi. Far right: Strike up on the blade’s “guard” to extract.

YMHOS

Links to Other Posts in this Series

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 1 – The Main Categories

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 2 – The Mentori Oiirenomi (面取追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 3 – The Shinogi Oiirenomi (鎬追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 4 – Kakuuchi Oiirenomi (角打追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 5 – High-Speed Steel Oiirenomi (HSS 追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 6 – The Mortise Chisel (Mukomachi Nomi 向待鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 7 – The Nihon Mukomachi Nomi (二本向待鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 8 – The Atsunomi (厚鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 9 – The Uchimaru Nomi Gouge (内丸鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 10 – The Sotomaru Nomi Incannel Gouge (外丸鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 12 – The Usunomi Paring Chisel (薄鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 13 – The Shinogi Usunomi 鎬薄鑿 Paring Chisel

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 14 – Kote Nomi (鏝鑿Trowel Chisel)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 15 – Ootsuki Nomi 大突き鑿

Please share your insight, questions or comments in the comments section below. If you would like to learn more about our tools, please use the contact form located immediately below.

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 9 – The Uchimaru Nomi Gouge (内丸鑿)

“A good tool improves the way you work. A great tool improves the way you think.”

Jeff Duntemann

The name of the Uchimaru Nomi is composed of 3 Chinese characters (kanji): 内 pronounced “uchi “which means “ inside” or “interior,” 丸 pronounced “maru” which means “round,” and 鑿 “nomi” which means chisel.

This gouge has a blade very similar in cross section to its Western counterpart, but unlike Western gouges, it is made of laminated steel, has the combined tang and ferrule construction typical of Japanese chisels, and a crown to reinforce the handle and protect it from violent hammer blows. These are strong chisels used by carpenters to carve large-scale architectural components, and sculptors.

They come in different sizes and sweeps, although not as many as the Swiss make. Some are the size of typical oiirenomi bench chisels; others are the size of the larger heavy-duty atsunomi.

Carving an architectural detail for a temple.
Uchimaru gouges with various sweeps (radius). The shiny surfaces are hard steel, while the black surfaces are softer low-carbon steel.
Carving a tray out of Kiri wood, a lightweight, aromatic wood much loved in Japan. Being exceptionally soft, it requires extremely sharp tools to cut cleanly. Clearly, this craftsman knows his business. He is using a knee-clamp on a low workbench.

As you can see, these blades are are not hollow-ground.

The relatively hard layer of steel which forms the cutting edge is often subjected to more lateral forces when carving than their straight-bladed cousins, and are sometimes damaged as a result. Professional carvers will hold the thin cutting edge over a small candle flame to reduce the hardness over a small area to reduce this tendency. I’m not recommending this practice, just conveying information.

The technique used for sharpening Japanese gouges is identical to their Western counterparts. To sharpen the outside bevel, typically one will use dedicated sharpening stones with grooves worn into them that are slightly greater than or equal to the radius of the gouge. One removes the burr and polishes the inside curve by using a short stone with a radiused edge.

A piece of leather charged with polishing compound can be used to put a final polish to the bevel. One can also bend this piece of leather to polish the gouge’s inside surface. Easy peezy.

Standard sizes are 9mm, 12mm, 15mm, 18mm, 24mm, 30mm, 36mm, and 42mm.

There are also uchimaru gouges made as paring chisels, with longer blades and handles, slimmer necks, and without crowns.

If you need a gouge that that can hog a lot of wood, will take an exceptionally sharp edge and will maintain it a long time, then this is a tool you should consider.

In the next post, we will look at a different type of gouge, one you may not have seen before.

YMHOS

Links to Other Posts in this Series

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 1 – The Main Categories

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 2 – The Mentori Oiirenomi (面取追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 3 – The Shinogi Oiirenomi (鎬追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 4 – Kakuuchi Oiirenomi (角打追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 5 – High-Speed Steel Oiirenomi (HSS 追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 6 – The Mortise Chisel (Mukomachi Nomi 向待鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 7 – The Nihon Mukomachi Nomi (二本向待鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 8 – The Atsunomi (厚鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 10 – The Sotomaru Nomi Incannel Gouge (外丸鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 11 – The Tsuba Nomi Guard Chisel (鍔鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 12 – The Usunomi Paring Chisel (薄鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 13 – The Shinogi Usunomi 鎬薄鑿 Paring Chisel

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 14 – Kote Nomi (鏝鑿Trowel Chisel)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 15 – Ootsuki Nomi 大突き鑿

Please share your insight, questions or comments in the comments section below. If you would like to learn more about our tools, please use the contact form located immediately below.

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 8 – The Atsunomi (厚鑿)

“Along with the milk of my nurse I received the knack of handling chisel and hammer, with which I make my figures.”

Michelangelo

In a previous post, we looked at various types of oiirenomi (bench chisels) and mortise chisels. In this post we will examine a type of tatakinomi called the “Atsunomi.”

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is OP5-EAZiCwD5syRC-erPVj08uGMbJLbXkD6v19zNkWFdBXKW5YDrsv_qPPT6jKAMEGYutWllu-7wDzJfHosNDU_wIkQEjhEDsrDsi5LH72zuuI2M531pnkDFjJeJz0MFG5FR__NM
Comparison of 42mm Mentori Oiirenomi and 50mm Atsunomi, both by Kiyotada

DESCRIPTION

The ”Atsunomi, ” written 厚鑿, translates to “thick chisel.” This is the largest variety of tatakinomi and is almost identical in design to its petite oirenomi sisters. Being larger, heavier and stronger it is able to transmit and endure the impact forces of heavy hammer blows from sunup to sundown and cut a lot of wood. Indeed, I can remember times when the handles of the 24mm and 30mm Kiyotada atsunomi in the photographs on this page became seriously hot after long hours of heavy hammer blows.

The 24mm chisel in the photograph below was the first atsunomi I owned. All three of the Kiyotada atsunomi chisels shown herein have seen hard use with heavy hammers, but have held up well.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is kiyotada-24mm-atsunomi2.jpg
24mm Atsunomi by Kiyotada (face) Japanese White Oak handle
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is kiyotada-30mm-atsunomi-face.jpg
30mm Atsunomi by Kiyotada (face) Japanese Red Oak handle. Definitely a Tokyo chisel.
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is kiyotada-30mm-atsunomi-ura.jpg
30 mm Atsunomi – Kiyotada (ura)

If I can liken the bench chisel or oiirenomi to a 1/4″ cordless hand drill, then the atsunomi is a 9 amp 1/2″ corded drill (when combined with the right steel hammer). Serious business indeed.

APPLICATIONS

The atsunomi is ideal for heavy work such as timber framing and wasting large amounts of wood quickly. However, carpenters are not the only trade to use them. Many professional craftsmen in Japan, even those that never work on construction sites, prefer to use atsunomi even for delicate work because of their relatively longer blades, greater durability, and cost-effectiveness.

Because of its greater size and weight, the atsunomi is not as nimble as the smaller varieties of tataki nomi and demand greater strength and skill of the user. But on the other hand, it is very stable in the cut and wastes wood with oodles of gravitas.

As with all tataki nomi, the handle is big enough to use with one hand, but not two. Atsunomi always have a mild steel katsura crown installed at the end of the handle to reinforce it and prevent it from splitting under hammer blows.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is atsunomi-sukemaru-30mm-wo-face-fl-1.jpg
30mm Atsunomi by Sukemaru (Shirogami No.1 Steel, Japanese White oak Handle)
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is atsunomi-sukemaru-30mm-wo-ura-fl-1.jpg
30mm Atsunomi by Sukemaru. Nicely made ura
30mm Atsunomi by Sukemaru. Notice the excellent steel lamination at the bevel and wrapped up the side. Notice also the sexy shoulders and strong neck; definitely a Niigata-style chisel.

Standard widths for atsunomi are: 12㎜, 15㎜, 18㎜, 21㎜, 24㎜, 30㎜, 36㎜, 42㎜, 48㎜.

There are several varieties of atsunomi, some with very wide blades and others with very long necks, but I will not go into that level of detail in this post.

In Part 9 of this saga of romance and derring-do, we will examine the Uchimaru Nomi.

YMHOS

© 2019 Stanley Covington All Rights Reserved

Links to Other Posts in this Series

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 1 – The Main Categories

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 2 – The Mentori Oiirenomi (面取追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 3 – The Shinogi Oiirenomi (鎬追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 4 – Kakuuchi Oiirenomi (角打追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 5 – High-Speed Steel Oiirenomi (HSS 追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 6 – The Mortise Chisel (Mukomachi Nomi 向待鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 7 – The Nihon Mukomachi Nomi (二本向待鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 9 – The Uchimaru Nomi Gouge (内丸鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 10 – The Sotomaru Nomi Incannel Gouge (外丸鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 11 – The Tsuba Nomi Guard Chisel (鍔鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 12 – The Usunomi Paring Chisel (薄鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 13 – The Shinogi Usunomi 鎬薄鑿 Paring Chisel

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 14 – Kote Nomi (鏝鑿Trowel Chisel)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 15 – Ootsuki Nomi 大突き鑿

Please share your insight, questions or comments in the comments section below. If you would like to learn more about our tools, please use the contact form located immediately below.

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 6 – The Mortise Chisel (Mukomachi Nomi 向待鑿)

The best carpenters make the fewest chips.

~English proverb, c.1500s

Japanese mortise chisels are called “Mukomachi Nomi” 向待鑿. I am unsure of the origin of the name, but the Chinese characters can be read as meaning “wait over there.” A curious name, it may refer to the shape of the transition from blade to neck, called a “machi” which is unique in Japanese chisels. I will simply call them “mortise chisels.”

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is RhQ7fKz4d2rn835QYpWc5nfkz-T9dPJ5tM8y9CheZnv-R_iScbcRaWZHK9y1CDbke6eu6-81nKL726eUyOrh-z70laeodtZSziEiIqlJhNtq1d6NlnEVXkgZvsYYQ4GhTxQ5zvLd
12mm Mortise Chisel – Sukezane (Side View)
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is ZljBUdWCJpIPtrzw2MFkamLyZFkDXcISTUQcj6jDw6gxxxoSJaIcf4rdC5zLP44xks5BadwUcaYB5tiadLcbx7Ihi0iamNFX-FTVa_eERr8CfCRjNCUf8W2AOyurFdkvmVr-46TV
12mm Mortise Chisel – Sukezane (Ura View)

DESCRIPTION

Mortise chisels are single-purpose tools for cutting rectangular holes in wood for mortise and tenon joints, the oldest recorded wood joint known.

Unlike other Japanese chisels, and even Western mortise chisels, the sides of the Japanese mortise chisel are shaped square to the “flat” instead of being angled slightly less than 90 degrees. The surfaces of the sides are of course straight along their length, but are either flat or slightly hollow across their width.

Other varieties of chisels have sides angled inwards to prevent the chisel from binding in the cut. This is less than ideal, however, when cutting small mortises because it allows the chisel to twist inside the mortise scoring the sides and reducing precision. The Japanese philosophy is that the blade’s sides should shave and clean the mortise at the same time it is cutting it so the sides don’t require additional cleanup with a paring chisel. Its a matter of precision and efficiency.

The straight flat sides of the mortise chisel have a relatively larger surface area that can create a lot of friction in the cut making extraction difficult in some cases, so the standard maximum width is 15mm.

Many advocate using double bevel cutting edges for Western mortise chisels. I have no problem with double bevels for atsunomi used to cut wide, deep mortises because the double bevel tends to kick more waste out of the mortise hole than a single flat bevel, although double bevels are more trouble to sharpen. But in the case of the standard Japanese mortise chisel, I recommend using a simple flat bevel for two reasons:

The first reason is that, since sharpness is critical for precise work, and a flat bevel is quicker and easier to sharpen, a flat bevel is more precise.

The second reason is that a flat bevel tends to stabilize the chisel in the cut more than a double bevel blade can, keeping it from twisting out of alignment and gouging the sides.

The lubrication provide by an oilpot makes using a mortise chisel quicker and the final product cleaner and more precise. Please see my previous post on the subject. https://covingtonsons.home.blog/2019/05/09/the-essential-oilpot/

APPLICATIONS

The mortise chisel is a specialist chisel for joinery, cabinetmaking and furniture work. It is not generally used by carpenters. Craftsmen that routinely use mortise chisels work to much tighter tolerances than most woodworkers, so a professional-grade mortise chisel must be forged and shaped to tighter tolerances than other chisels.

I only have one blacksmith with the skills and attention to detail required to make mortise chisels to my specifications. He thinks I’m a prissy pink princess. I think he’s a stubborn old fart. We’re like an old married couple(ツ).

If you need to cut lots of precise mortise holes quickly, then this tool will definitely improve your results and increase your satisfaction. It may not be the most handsome chisel in your toolchest, but you will come to rely on it more than any other for quality joinery work.

Standard widths for mortise chisels are 3mm, 4.5mm, 6mm, 7.5mm, 9mm, 12mm, and 15mm, but Sukezane won’t make 15mm mortise chisels for me anymore, dagnabit.

More than any other, mortise chisels are subtle, intelligent beasties, or at least they can be. I will talk more about what to look for in a good mortise chisel, as well as how to realize their Einstein-like focus to help you do better work, in future posts.

YMHOS

Links to Other Posts in this Series

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 1 – The Main Categories

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 2 – The Mentori Oiirenomi (面取追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 3 – The Shinogi Oiirenomi (鎬追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 4 – Kakuuchi Oiirenomi (角打追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 5 – High-Speed Steel Oiirenomi (HSS 追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 7 – The Nihon Mukomachi Nomi (二本向待鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 8 – The Atsunomi (厚鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 9 – The Uchimaru Nomi Gouge (内丸鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 10 – The Sotomaru Nomi Incannel Gouge (外丸鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 11 – The Tsuba Nomi Guard Chisel (鍔鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 12 – The Usunomi Paring Chisel (薄鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 13 – The Shinogi Usunomi 鎬薄鑿 Paring Chisel

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 14 – Kote Nomi (鏝鑿Trowel Chisel)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 15 – Ootsuki Nomi 大突き鑿

Please share your insight, questions or comments in the comments section below. If you would like to learn more about our tools, please use the contact form located directly below.

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 4 – Kakuuchi Oiirenomi (角打追入鑿)

“Do not wait; the time will never be “just right.” Start where you stand, and work with whatever tools you may have at your command, and better tools will be found as you go along.”

George Herbert

The oldest style of oiirenomi currently available nowadays is called ” kakuuchi oiirenomi” (角打追い入れ鑿)which means ”square-forged oiirenomi,” refering to the squarish shape. In cross section, the blade is rectangular with 4 more-or-less square outside corners. Other than this cross-sectional detail, it is identical in appearance to the mentori oiirenomi we discussed in my earlier post here.

Kakuuchi Oiirenomi – Hidari no Ichihiro (Hyotan mark)
Kakuuchi Oiirenomi – Hidari no Ichihiro (Polished; Hyotan mark)
Kakuuchi Oiirenomi – Hidari no Ichihiro (Hyotan and “Mi” marks)

DESCRIPTION

Where the Shinogi Oiirenomi in the previous post is thin and light, the Kakuuchi Oiirenomi is more bulky and heavy. They are also stiffer in the blade and even in the neck, which can be an advantage in narrower widths.

This added stiffness is not due to the extra mass of metal alone, but also to the fact that the steel layer is wrapped further up the blade’s sides than is possible for the thinner beveled sides of the mentori oiirenomi, as you can see in the photos above. Wrapping the high-carbon steel cutting layer up the blade’s softer low-carbon steel sides in this way creates in effect a hardened steel “U” channel with an increased moment of inertia, which makes the blade much stiffer. The thicker the chisel’s sides, the deeper the U channel, and the stiffer the blade.

The U-channel construction of Japanese chisels is a clever but subtle structural detail unique in the universe of chisels and one most people are not aware of.

Carving chisels do not have this U-channel detail and therefore are not as stiff or as tough as chisels that do. When you are considering buying a chisel, this is an important feature to confirm.

The following are some pictures of two of our Kakuuchi Oirenomi by Nagamitsu, hand-forged, of course, from Hitachi Yasuki Shirogami No.1 Steel (aka “White Steel).

36mm Kakuuchi Oiirenomi by Nagamitsu (Face)
36mm Kakuuchi Oiirenomi by Nagamitsu (Side)
12mm Kakuuchi Oiirenomi by Nagamitsu (Ura)
36mm Kakuuchi Oiirenomi by Nagamitsu (face)
36mm Kakuuchi Oiirenomi by Nagamitsu (Side)
36mm Kakuuchi Oiirenomi by Nagamitsu (ura)

Kakuuchi chisels take less time for a blacksmith to shape than the mentori oiirenomi we discussed in Part 2 of this series. The difference in shaping these two styles of chisels is the added step of grinding the extra bevels that make the mentori oiirenomi sleeker.

Indeed, most styles of Japanese chisels can be obtained with a Kakuuchi cross section, including the oiirenomi version shown in my previous post, as well as atsunomi and usunomi, chisels we will examine in future posts.

Kakuuchi-style chisels take a little more effort to sharpen because the area of the bevel is larger, and more significantly, the area of the hard steel layer is greater, but on the other hand, they feel more stable on the stones.

More than a preference for greater weight, stiffness and stability, I suspect most individuals who prefer this old-fashioned chisel are making a fashion statement, something like “brogues not oxfords,” if I can adapt a movie quote.

In my opinion, they are not as elegant in appearance as either the mentori oiirenomi or shinogi oiirenomi referenced in previous posts, but they do have undeniable dignity and presence.

What do you think?

YMHOS

Links to Other Posts in this Series

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 1 – The Main Categories

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 2 – The Mentori Oiirenomi (面取追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 3 – The Shinogi Oiirenomi (鎬追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 5 – High-Speed Steel Oiirenomi (HSS 追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 6 – The Mortise Chisel (Mukomachi Nomi 向待鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 7 – The Nihon Mukomachi Nomi (二本向待鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 8 – The Atsunomi (厚鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 9 – The Uchimaru Nomi Gouge (内丸鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 10 – The Sotomaru Nomi Incannel Gouge (外丸鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 11 – The Tsuba Nomi Guard Chisel (鍔鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 12 – The Usunomi Paring Chisel (薄鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 13 – The Shinogi Usunomi 鎬薄鑿 Paring Chisel

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 14 – Kote Nomi (鏝鑿Trowel Chisel)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 15 – Ootsuki Nomi 大突き鑿

Please share your insight, questions or comments in the comments section below. If you would like to learn more about our tools, please use the contact form located directly below.

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 3 – The Shinogi Oiirenomi (鎬追入鑿)

“The best investment is in the tools of one’s own trade.”

Benjamin Franklin

The next variety of oirenomi we will look at is called the ”shinogi oiirenomi” (鎬追入鑿).

Hidari no Ichihihiro Shinogi Oiirenomi Blade
Shinogi Oiirenomi – Nagamitsu 長光

Shinogi (鎬) means ”ridge” as in the angled ridge of a rooftop or mountain. It is pronounced “she-noh-gee.” I believe the word was borrowed from the sword world where it refers to an angled ridge design on the back edge of Japanese swords (shinogizukuri 鎬造り). This detail is used not only in tatakinomi but in tsukinomi as well.

鎬が高い図
Two Angles of Sword Shinogi
日本刀の断面図
Blade Cross-section
View of Sword’s Shinogi and Hamon

Shinogi oiirenomi are beveled like mentori oiirenomi but are different in that the bevels extend all the way to the centerline of the blade’s face creating a definite ridge. The thickness of the blade’s right and left edges is typically thinner than oiirenomi making it easier to get into tight corners.

I am very fond of this handy, lightweight style of oirenomi and keep a 10pc set mounted to the inside of my toolchest’s lid.

The downside to this design is that the chisel blade loses some stiffness compared to other styles, so they are less than ideal for heavy-duty wood hogging.

Some call these ” umeki” or ” dovetail” chisels. Indeed, some blacksmiths will grind the bevels to a very thin edge for this purpose.

My blacksmiths will not create these thin edges for three reasons: First, shinogi oirenomi are not all that rigid to being with, and thinning the sides further is inviting breakage. Second, warpage is especially difficult to control in thin cross-sections resulting in more rejects and increased costs. And third, people always cut themselves badly using chisels with sides made thin enough to actually fit dovetails. Neither my blacksmiths nor I want that responsibility.

Most umeki chisels do not have the thin sides most people expect.

If you need very thin, sharp sides, you should grind and polish the bevels yourself. Don’t forget to keep a first-aid kit close by, one you can use with just one hand. Seriously.

Shinogi oiirenomi are available in the same widths as oiirenomi.

In the next post I will introduce an old-fashioned but still useful oiirenomi called the “kakuuchi oirenomi.” Stay tuned.

YMHOS

© 2019 Stanley Covington All Rights Reserved

Links to Other Posts in this Series

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 1 – The Main Categories

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 2 – The Mentori Oiirenomi (面取追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 4 – Kakuuchi Oiirenomi (角打追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 5 – High-Speed Steel Oiirenomi (HSS 追入鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 6 – The Mortise Chisel (Mukomachi Nomi 向待鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 7 – The Nihon Mukomachi Nomi (二本向待鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 8 – The Atsunomi (厚鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 9 – The Uchimaru Nomi Gouge (内丸鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 10 – The Sotomaru Nomi Incannel Gouge (外丸鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 11 – The Tsuba Nomi Guard Chisel (鍔鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 12 – The Usunomi Paring Chisel (薄鑿)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 13 – The Shinogi Usunomi 鎬薄鑿 Paring Chisel

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 14 – Kote Nomi (鏝鑿Trowel Chisel)

The Varieties of Japanese Chisels Part 15 – Ootsuki Nomi 大突き鑿

Please share your insight or comments in the section below. If you have questions or would like to learn more about our tools, please use the contact form located directly below.