This article contains information for the Beloved Customers of C&S Tools to reference when setting up their new chisels.
All of C&S Tools’s chisels are professional-grade, hand-forged tools intended for the professionals among our Beloved Customers that will use them to make products for their customers, and require excellent lifetime service of their tools under daily working conditions.
By publishing these instructions C&S Tools is not suggesting our chisels are incomplete or require work by the purchaser before they can be used. To the contrary, our chisels are entirely usable and will provide fine service when new as-is without performing the procedures described below. Indeed the condition in which we supply them is standard for tools sold in Japan, where they were handmade.
Some may find these procedures to be too heavy a burden of time and effort. If, Beloved Customer, you don’t require professional levels of performance and durability, then there is no need to bother with these setup procedures. But please don’t tell anyone that we at C&S Tools agree with the abuse of chisels through amateurish techniques like kigoroshi, or soaking handles in water, or micro-bevels, or using grinders. BS is piled so widely, deeply, and fragrantly on the internet that there is no need to add more.
It is certain that these setup procedures will ensure your chisel’s handles will endure hundreds of thousands of hammer blows and provide trouble-free service for many decades. They may also help your chisels perform more efficiently. And they will protect your warranty. The choice is yours.
Which Chisels Require Setup?
There are several general categories and many types of Japanese chisels. Your humble servant will delve into this subject in greater detail in future posts, but the two general classifications are Tatakinomi (叩鑿）meaning “striking chisel,” which are designed to be motivated with a steel hammer to cut larger quantities of wood, and Tsukinomi (突き鑿), which translates directly to “thrusting chisel,” the equivalent of “paring chisel” in the Western tradition, and are designed to be pushed by hand for paring operations. The setup measures described herein are not entirely irrelevant, but are normally unnecessary for tsukinomi.
Tatakinomi, including oirenomi (bench chisels), atsunomi (oirenomi on steroids), and mukomachinomi (mortise chisels) are the focus of this post.
Why Should I Setup My Chisels?
C&S chisels are professional-grade tools, not mass-produced consumer-grade tools. They will serve you best if you treat them in a professional manner, including performing proper setup.
In fact, Japanese tatakinomi chisels are designed and manufactured assuming the end user will perform some setup work before using them in accordance with Japanese tradition. Indeed it was not that long ago that craftsmen in Japan purchased chisels as components and made the handles themselves.
Performing setup will probably help your chisels perform a little better and will absolutely ensure the handles last longer. And by avoiding the deformation and damage that typically develops without proper setup, you will preserve your reputation as a professional woodworker in the eyes of other professionals.
The example chisel we will use in this article and pictured below is a variety of tatakinomi called an Atsunomi.
This chisel was forged by a famous Japanese blacksmith named Shimamura Kosaburo (RIP) who used the brand Kiyotada, written 清忠, meaning “pure and faithful.” A founding member of the Tokyo Chisel Guild, during his lifetime Mr. Shimamura was lauded by experts in the fields of blacksmithing and metallurgy as the finest chisel blacksmith in Japan. I agree with their assessment.
The Purpose of these Procedures
Unlike western chisels, Japanese tatakinomi chisels are designed to be struck with a steel hammer. These impact forces tend to cause the handle to mushroom and even split, but the crown or hoop (called the “katsura” in Japanese) installed at the far end of the handle combined with the coned ferrule (called “kuchigane” in Japanese) installed at the blade end of the handle contain and compresses the wood fibers preventing this damage. Even then, the impact forces of steel hammers do crush and break fibers at the handle’s end such that over decades of hard use the handle will gradually become shorter.
In order for the crown to continue to protect the handle from splitting as the handle becomes shorter, it must be able to travel down the handle in tiny increments without gouging and/or splitting the handle. A primary goal of these procedures is to ensure this natural progression occurs without the crown damaging the handle.
Occasionally your steel hammer may strike the end of the handle a bit off-center impacting the mild-steel crown. After this occurs a few thousand times the crown may mushroom preventing it from traveling smoothly down the handle without gouging it. Another goal of these procedures, therefore, is to prevent, or at least minimize, this deformation of the crown thereby avoiding damage to both handle and hammer.
The kuchigane mentioned above is a truncated metal cone or ferrule that fits between the handle and blade. Written 口金 in Chinese characters (which translates to “mouth metal” ) this bit of mild steel is key to the handle design of Japanese chisels because it serves to keep the hammer’s impulse forces from splitting the handle by compressing the tapered end of the handle against the tang under great pressure. And when installed properly it also improves the flow of impact forces from a steel handle to the cutting edge while at the same time minimizing unpleasant harmonic vibrations. This is a genius-level design feature critical to the wooden handle’s durability.
But if the fit between the kuchigane, the blade’s tang, and the wooden handle is a bit off, strange harmonics may develop that may cause the chisel to behave skittishly. Also, if the fit between handle and kuchigane permits the kuchigane to ride-up and dig into the handle after many hammer strikes the handle will become gouged and weakened.
Therefore two additional goals of these procedures are (1) to ensure the handle, ferrule and tang fit properly to provide efficient transfer of impact forces acting on the blade; and (2) to ensure the kuchigane will not damage the handle during the hard work to which professionals routinely subject their chisels.
The following pictures show what these measures will help avoid.
Tools and Materials Needed for Performing Setup
- Masking tape
- Fine point marking pen or ball pen
- Sharp knife for cutting wood
- Sharp knife or de-burring tool for de-burring and chamfering mild steel (an inexpensive kiridashi kogatana with an edge sharpened to 45 degrees shaves metal faster and cleaner than a file)
- Rat-tail file or chainsaw file (can also be used for deburring)
- Flat mill file
- Block of hardwood for driving off crowns
- Wet/Dry sandpaper (220, 320, 600 grit)
- Satin varnish or polyurethane and thinner
- Gas stove or propane torch (optional; outdoors use)
- Silk cloth (optional)
Step 1: Safety first. You will need all your fingers for this process, and sticky red stuff on everything is unsightly, so please tape some cardboard around the cutting edge to ensure your digits remain firmly attached to your hands.
Step 2: Mark the blade’s orientation on handle. Place a mark or arrow on the end of the handle in line with the flat of the blade to help you reassemble the handle in the same orientation. If you are setting-up multiple chisels at the same time, write the blade width or other designation on the handle’s end to avoid confusion later.
Step 3: Separate the blade from handle. If the process of removing the crown did not loosen the blade, hold the blade in one hand and strike the kuchigane against the corner of a wooden workbench or block of wood. The best locations to strike the kuchigane are at points in line with the corners of the square tang, as seen in the photos of the bare tang below. Notice how the tang’s flats are aligned with the top and bottom of the blade.
Strike each corner twice, then shift the point of impact 90° and repeat. The goal is to gradually rattle the handle off the blade’s tang, so don’t be shy. If the blade and handle still refuse to separate, expand the kuchigane and shrink the wood using a heat gun or by placing the kuchigane nearly (but not quite) touching a hot incandescent light bulb for a few hours. Do not place the chisel in an oven!
Step 4: Remove the crown (hoop). Now that the blade and handle are separated, grip a block of hardwood tight against the handle in one hand, with one end butting up against the crown, and strike the opposite end of the block with a hammer. Work the block around the crown and repeat until the crown comes off.
Step 5: Disassemble the handle and kuchigane. If you are setting-up multiple chisels at the same time be sure to mark/label each chisel’s components to ensure they can be matched for reassembly. I usually write the blade’s width on the handle’s end with a marking pen and scratch it inside the kuchigane and crown with a pointed scribe.
True the Tang and Shoulder
Step 6: True the Tang and Shoulder: The tang and neck/shoulder should meet at a clean 90° angle, however a slight filet is acceptable. The shoulder should be clean and flat. If necessary, true it up carefully with a flat file, but be careful to only true the shoulder without filing gouges into the tang. Also, use the file to remove burrs and gross irregularities on the tang as necessary. Please remember that the tang will always be hidden, so please don’t weaken it by trying to file it to perfection.
As you can see in the photo above, the tang does not need to be perfect, just free of big irregularities, burrs and sharp corners that might cause the fit between handle and tang to loosen after hard pounding,
When you are done, there should not be a pronounced gap between the shoulder and kuchigane when the chisel is assembled.
Prepare the Kuchigane (Ferrule)
Step 7: Check the Kuchigane: Check the blade end of the handle with the kuchigane in place. If it is a sloppy fit, adjust the handle using knives, files, and sandpaper as necessary.
Step 8: Flatten the End of the Kuchigane: Flatten each end of the kuchigane with a flat file without removing more material than is absolutely necessary. Be sure the ends are in planes perpendicular to the kuchigane’s centerline. I usually accomplish this by holding the kuchigane in one hand and running it back and forth over the surface of a wider file.
Step 9: Chamfer the Kuchigane: Chamfer the inside of the kuchigane’s wide end (not narrow end) with a knife or round file. Shave or file a a 45° chamfer 1/2 to 2/3 the thickness of the kuchigane’s wall on the inside corner of the kuchigane’s wide end. An inexpensive kiridashi kogatana knife or deburring tool with a blade angle of around 40 degrees will easily shave the mild steel used for crowns and kuchigane and works quicker and cleaner than a file. Please don’t cut yourself.
A stopped hole drilled into a board works well to secure parts when deburring and chamfering them. Vise grips also work well for securing crowns if you pad the jaws to keep them from gouging the parts, but such clamping tools tend to deform kuchigane, so please exercise caution.
Allow me to repeat: Be extremely careful not to cut yourself. They may be beautiful and very useful, but many chisels and knives are cold vampiric geniuses that fear neither sunshine nor spaghetti sauce and want to cut you, so beware! Hold parts in a way the blades absolutely can’t bite you no matter how hard they try. A severed tendon can be a life-changing surprise.
Step 10: Refinish the Kuchigane: If you decide to refinish the kuchigane, remove the existing chemical bluing with sandpaper at this time.
Prepare the Crown (Hoop)
Step 11. Chamfer the Crown: Chamfer both inside corners (top and bottom edges) to a nice round 45° angle with a knife or a rat tail file. This step is very important.
Step 12. Debur the crown: Debur and clean up the crown’s inside surface. However, be careful to not remove too much metal or the crown may fit too loosely.
Step 13: Clean the crown’s exterior surfaces: Lightly file and sand the crown’s exterior surfaces to remove major irregularities. However, there is little point in trying to make these surfaces perfectly smooth since they will get banged up by hammers.
Prepare the Handle
Step 14: Check the Depth of the Tang Hole. If the hole in the handle which receives the tang is too shallow, the pointy end of the tang will bottom-out and can cause the handle to split. Measure it’s depth with piece of wire or a stick. If it is not deeper than the length of the tang, drill the hole just a tad deeper.
Step 15: Check/Adjust Blade Alignment. With the kuchigane removed, insert the tang into the handle correctly oriented, and sight down the handle. If the handle and blade do not line up properly, you may need to correct the misalignment.
To do so, first try fitting the blade to the handle in a different orientation (90˚). If this does not improve things, make thin slips of wood the width of the tang’s flat and fit one into the hole before inserting the blade. Slips made of cardstock, manila folder, or cotton typewriter paper work well too. If you feel a lot of resistance when inserting the tang, attach the kuchigane to prevent splitting.
Thinner or thicker slips can be inserted if more correction is necessary, but there is a point where too many slips will make it impossible to insert the tang without splitting the handle. In this worse case scenario, shave the hole a bit wider with a chisel or other slender piece of steel sharpened as a scraper to permit adequate shimming. Be careful to remove the absolute minimum amount of wood.
Step 16: Check/Adjust Crown Fit. It is acceptable for the crown to leave a shallow ring depression in the handle, but if the crown digs deeply into the handle, shave or sand the handle to ensure the crown will not gouge it.
Step 17: Prep the Shoulder. Most chisels have a shoulder turned into the handle where the kuchigane terminates, making for a smooth, attractive transition between kuchigane and handle. This is most pronounced in chisels made in Western Japan. However, if the kuchigane butts tightly up against this shoulder, over time the force of the hammer can drive the kuchigane into this shoulder damaging the handle.
Relieving this shoulder with scallops will provide some room for smooth movement of the kuchigane over time. To do this, first mark a line around the handle where the kuchigane ends. Then remove the kuchigane.
Step 18. Place a Guide Around the Handle: Wrap a piece of paper or light cardboard 3/16″ to 1/4” above the line of the shoulder, secure it with tape, and using it as a guide, mark another line around the handle with a fine-point marking pen, ball pen, or knife. When done, remove the kuchigane and paper.
Step 19: Mark the Handle: Use a pen, pencil or marking pen to mark the cone at diagonals across the tang hole and extend these marks to the line you made in the previous step. This will leave four lines 90° apart. Now make similar marks at the flats of the tang and extend the lines. There should now be eight lines separated by 45°.
Step 20: Cut the Scallops: Wrap masking tape around the cone as shown in the picture below to protect the cone from cuts which might weaken it. With a very sharp knife or chisel, make four cuts in small increments centered on one of the lines and forming a concave scallop between the two adjacent lines. Repeat for the other four lines. These curved scallops should transition smoothly into the wooden cone, but should not cut into it. This may not be as easy to accomplish as it seems. If done properly, the scallops should appear uniform and attractive, but perfection is neither attainable nor desirable in a handmade tool. Finally, shave off the ridge between the scallops creating a total of sixteen scallops at 22.5°.
Finish the Handle
Some people prefer a handle without any finish, while others like a shiny finish.
Hand sweat tends to react with the tannic acid in Japanese White Oak handles turning them a dirty-looking grey. Japanese Red Oak, as in the handle in the pictures above, does not discolor as much.
Whether you refinish the handle, leave it as-is, or sand it bare is your choice. It makes no difference to the chisel’s performance.
Step 21: Sand the Handle. At this point, you can either (1) Not sand the handle (unless it is damaged), and varnish the scallops and any areas shaved at the crown end of the handle to match the existing handle finish; (2) Sand off the existing finish entirely to bare wood; or (3) Refinish the entire handle.
Step 22: Apply a Finish: This step is applicable if you decide to apply a finish to the handle. Sweat may cause Japanese White Oak, a wood commonly used for chisel handles, to discolor, so a light finish (not a thick glossy finish) is appropriate in your humble servant’s opinion. The following is the method I recommend. First, sand off any remaining finish on the handle. Apply a coat of satin varnish or polyurethane diluted 100% with thinner. Allow as much of this mixture to soak into the wood’s fibers as possible. Rub the wet varnish mixture forcibly into the wood using wet-or-dry sandpaper. Thinned varnish will penetrate further into the wood than straight varnish, and the pressure of sanding will force it deeper into the fibers than just capillary action could achieve. In addition, sanding will create a wood/varnish slurry filling the grain.
Allow this mixture of varnish and wood dust to dry without wiping it off. It will look terrible, but never fear. Repeat these steps for a second coat and allow to dry. Apply a third coat, sand lightly, and then wipe off the varnish slurry with a cloth.
When dry, the result will be a non-slip surface free of lathe marks that does not appear to have any finish, but that will protect the wood from sweat and moisture. If a little bit of visible surface finish is desired, a final single coat of thinned varnish can be applied. To ensure the previously cut scallops remain nice and crisp, do not sand them.
Warning: Do NOT apply finish to the crown end of the handle because the finish will make the wood fibers too stiff to deform properly. If you want to go the extra mile, a bit of melted paraffin wax or beeswax allowed to soak into the end of the handle will protect it from water and make it more resilient over time than just bare wood.
Finish the Kuchigane and Katsura
This is an optional cosmetic step, but will make your chisel more attractive. There are several ways of finishing the metal of the kuchigane and crown:
Heat Bluing: Simply heat the kuchigane and crown on a stove until it is blue-black. Do not heat the blade! This is an ancient steel-finishing technique, indeed one routinely used to colorize plate armor in medieval times. Not very durable, but it looks cool.
Oil Black: Coat the metal with motor or transmission oil and heat it until the oil is burnt off. This method makes a lot of stinky smoke, so don’t do it indoors. Fairly durable. Do not heat the blade!
Gun Blue (chemical bluing): Brownells’ cold blue formula works well. Birchwood Casey also makes a convenient chemical bluing product. Looks nice, but not very durable.
Rust Blue or Rust Black: These are classic, beautiful steel finishes that are much more durable than chemical or heat bluing. However, the process requires dangerous chemicals, a fine-bristle stainless-steel brush and time. A description of the process is not possible here.
Burnt Silk Finish: This is one of my favorite finishing methods because it is quick and easy and looks good. Simply heat the metal parts over a flame, and using pliers so you don’t burn yourself of course, wipe the metal in a wad of scrap silk. An old silk necktie works fine. The silk protein will char, coating the metal with a carbon finish with an interesting texture. Wipe the metal quickly but thoroughly to prevent globs of melted silk from sticking to the metal. Don’t do this inside the house because the smoke will set off the smoke alarm and the stink will endure for weeks. SWMBO will not be pleased. Do not heat the blade!
Reassemble the Chisel
If this is a new chisel, it may be convenient to true the blade’s ura and sharpen it before final assembly. These tasks are a little easier with the handle removed.
Step 23: Install the Crown: To begin assembly, hold the handle in the air by one hand and drive on the crown using a wooden, plastic or rawhide mallet, not a steel hammer. You should always remove your wrist watch before wacking chisels if you want it to keep working. A word to the wise.
There is a specialty tool for this job, essentially a steel cone that fits over the crown, which you strike with a hammer. If you enjoy spending money on heavy tools that take up space and are seldom-used, then you must have one. But a hammer works just as well and can do many more tasks.
Once the crown is flush with the handle, angle the handle and strike the crown with your wooden mallet or steel hammer at an angle driving it further onto the handle. You only need to be drive it down far enough so the top of the crown is below the end of the handle by 1/16”. More is wasteful. Then strike the edges of the handle projecting beyond the crown at an angle with a steel hammer to lightly mushroom over the corners of the handle securing the crown in place. Do not soak the handle in water, for Pete’s sake!
Soaking the handle in water prior to fitting the crown is a method preferred by handlemakers and wholesalers that fit hundreds of crowns a day. They will soak 50 handles at a time in a shallow pan of water to soften the ends making it easier to mushroom. Convenient for them, but bad for the chisel because the water will also cause the wood to swell, and when it later dries and shrinks, the crown may become loose over time. Your handle deserves better.
Step 24: Install the Kuchigane: Fit the kuchigane to the handle lightly and insert the blade’s tang oriented according to the marks you made previously. Tap the end of the handle to lightly seat the blade, but allow enough room so the kuchigane can be rotated by hand. Rotate the kuchigane to minimize any gaps between it and blade’s shoulder.
If you see any big gaps, lightly file the kuchigane to match the blade’s shoulder.
If any part of the handle projects past the kuchigane’s mouth, carefully shave it off with a sharp knife.
Step 25. Seat the Blade: With both crown and kuchigane now installed on the handle, finish seating the blade by holding the chisel by the handle in the air and striking the end squarely with a mallet or hammer until it seats tightly. Don’t cut yourself!
Step 26. Final Check and Adjustment of Kuchigane to Shoulder Fit: Now that the chisel is assembled, there is one last check to make. The fit between the blade’s shoulder and the narrow end of the kuchigane need not be perfect (perfection is unattainable for mere mortals) but it does need to be fairly uniform because most of the impulse energy from the hammer flows through this tiny interface. Therefore, if there is a big gap, or if half the kuchigane on one side, for instance, is not contacting the shoulder, the flow of impact forces will not be smooth and the chisel will feel “skittish.” Examine this fit for gaps and irregularities, and correct them by filing the kuchigane. You will need to loosen the blade and handle enough to insert a small file, but you don’t necessarily need to completely disassemble the chisel.
Congratulations! Your chisel is now setup for professional use.
Use the Right Hammer
When cutting wood with a tatakinomi, please use a hammer with a flat face, such as a Japanese gennou, to strike your chisel. A hammer with a domed or convex face, as are almost all hammers sold outside Japan nowadays, may damage the chisel’s handle after enough strikes. Ergonomics aside, a ball peen hammer or claw hammer with its face ground flat will work just as well as a Japanese hardware-store gennou.
And while we are on the subject of hammer faces, I recommend you smooth and even polish your hammer face so it will strike cleaner and reduce the wear on your chisel handles, counterintuitive as that may seem. Slipping will not be a problem, trust me.
I encourage you select a hammer weight that balances well with the weight and blade width of your chisel, the type of wood and type of cutting you plan to do, and your body and style of work. This decision will make a difference in the precision and speed of your work, the energy you expend, and the stress on your joints.
The standard range of weights for gennou hammers for carpentry work in Japan is 100mome to 120monme (375gm (13oz) to 450gm (16oz), perfect for driving nails, general carpentry work, and motivating atsunomi. However, many find a lighter-weight head, perhaps in the neighborhood of 60~80 monme ( 236gm (8.3 oz) to 300gm (11 oz)), works better with smaller chisels, such as oiirenomi, for furniture and joinery work.
I also encourage you to make a handle for your hammer that suits your body and style of work.
This post is already too long so I won’t go into details, but suffice it to say that commercial hammer handles are a one-size-fits-nobody design that confuses the hand, is non-aerodynamic (I bet you never thought about air-drag in relation to hammer handles), transmits excess vibration to your joints, and ignores obvious ergonomics causing the head to impact the chisel off-center and out-of-kilter. There is a better way, and you will love the results.
We will dive head-first down that rabbit hole, screaming like a banshee on fire, in future posts!
Rust Prevention & Storage
If set up properly, a quality set of Japanese chisels will endure decades of hard daily use with no maintenance beyond oiling and sharpening.
You should store your chisels where they will be protected from weather, water, sudden temperature changes, dust, fly-specs, spilled beer, and paint overspray. Convenient though it may be store chisels in an exposed rack or bare on a shelf, unless your workshop is a temperature and humidity controlled cleanroom, or you use chisels stored this way nearly everyday and clean and oil them frequently, such storage methods are guaranteed to reduce their useful lifespan and will waste your sharpening efforts and sharpening stones sure as eggses is eggses.
I recommend you make a wooden chisel box with a lid to store your chisels. I am preparing an article on how to design and make a chisel box, and will post it on the blog when it is ready.
After every use, oil the blade to prevent rust. An aburatsubo or oilpot is a critical accessory for chisels, and is easily made. You can find details here.
A Final Note
Since we wrote this tutorial ten years or so ago, we have frequently received questions from Beloved Customers and Gentle Readers about the fact that the chisel setup procedures described herein differ in important ways from those taught by most retailers of Japanese tools in the USA and Europe, as well as those expounded in videos on NoobTube, or posted on the woodworking internet forums.
This Final Note is intended to dispel confusion among Beloved Customers and Gentle Readers on these points.
So why is are the techniques presented in this tutorial so different from those found online?
When asked this question, your humble and obedient servant is often tempted to respond that the questioner should perform the “Big Spoon Quality Test.” This QC technique involves taking a big, heaping spoonful of the online advice in question, then holding one’s nose and swallowing it down, yes, all the way down, …. keep swallowing now, no don’t upchuck, and afterwards deciding for oneself if it is fragrant wisdom or stinky BS. As the saying goes: “the proof is in the pudding,” or was it “laughter is the best medicine?” I forget.
In any case, while such a hasty reply would be hilariously entertaining, it would also be crude. Fortunately, your humble servant is nothing if not exquisitely elegant, so I will instead try to provide a more detailed and tasteful explanation below instead.
The Long Answer
Yes, Virginia, we have seen the various online videos about setting-up Japanese chisels. The creators of most of them are simply parroting instructions that some long-gone employee of a wholesaler, probably some soft-handed office worker who had never used a chisel professionally, heard from another guy working at a chisel factory assembling hundreds of chisels everyday as quickly as possible from cheap parts, some of which may have been imported from China.
Some of our Gentle Reader are now saying to yourselves: “Wait just one frickin minute there! What do you mean, “made in China!?” Please take a deep breath, smell the napalm, and realize that too many of the components assembled into products in advanced countries are actually made in China at low cost. Poor quality is the natural consequence of procurement policies intended to maximize profits, all other considerations be damned. The components used in C&S Tools’s chisels, however, are all made in Japan of quality materials and to reasonable tolerances.
Here’s the problem: Imagine a chisel handle and/or crown manufactured to such careless tolerances that one must beat the heck out of the handle with a hammer (kigoroshi) to reduce the handle’s diameter enough so the poorly-matched crown or ferrule will fit.
Now ask yourself two questions: (1) How difficult can it be to control the tolerances of wooden handles and mild steel rings? And (2) will permanently crushing the hardwood handle’s cells improve its durability and/or longevity?
Or imagine, if you possibly can (difficult, we know), a handle and its crown or ferrule so poorly matched that one must swell the wood with water to get the crown or ferrule to stay attached long enough to ship the chisel overseas. Is your mind not boggled yet?
Do you think such poor manufacturing tolerances or either of these ham-handed techniques make for a better chisel, one that will provide good long-term service in the real world? Sadly, this is the grade of chisel with which the PooTube “Creators” and the so-called “experts” on the slimy orc-infested forums have hands-on experience.
The manufacturers of these shoddy tools provide zero warranties. Their products disappear into overseas markets where consumers are accustomed to being deceived as a matter of course, and the quality of most of their competitor’s products in the local markets, essentially sharpened Chinese-made screwdrivers, are of even poorer quality, so there is no backlash, only profits.
If any of this sounds to you like proper quality control or good value for the consumer, then there’s some swamp land located next to an abandoned chrome plating plant in North Korea, shovel-ready for resort development, that’s for sale at an amazingly low price. We read about it on an internet forum, so it must be true. All you have to do is send US$3,000 in small unmarked bills via FedEx to a private P.O. Box in Abuja, Nigeria belonging to Prince Musa Adebayo. It’s a limited time offer, so you’d better hurry ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)
Most of our Beloved Customers are not new to Japanese tools. They have bought the sizzle before, found the flavor revolting, and came to us for real bacon. They want honest handmade tools that meet the rigorous demands of advanced Japanese professional woodworkers. That is what C&S Tools routinely delivers.
The Short Answer
Let’s wrap this up by concisely answering the original question.
First, we promote different chisel setup techniques because the tools our Beloved Customers need to setup are different from those with which the “Creators” on Gooble’s SpewTube and the trolls on the internet forums are accustomed. They are made by true craftsmen, not unskilled factory workers using Chinese components.
Our craftsmen are Japanese gentlemen living and working in Japan using crowns, ferrules, and handles made by them to reasonable tolerances, attached to the highest-quality hand-forged blades, also made by real Japanese blacksmiths working in their own smithies. Kigoroshi and water soaks are not necessary to setup these chisels, and will in fact harm them.
Second, because our Beloved Customers selected C&S Tools, we assume they are more advanced woodworkers than the easily-deceived amateurs that typically buy the hardware store-grade mass-produced chisels commonly available outside Japan, and therefore actually want to do initial setup in accordance with the highest standards, not the lowest. It’s their choice, of course, but it would be unimaginably irresponsible of your humble servant to advocate lesser techniques just to match the posers on GuberLube.
And third, unlike the wholesalers and distributors that peddle hardware store-grade tools overseas at inflated prices, we take our warranty seriously, and therefore actually care about the performance and longevity of the tools we sell. We need our Beloved Customers to set them up properly using the advanced techniques we promote because we have a reputation to protect and a direct financial interest in customer satisfaction.
Five Potential Solutions
We hope this explanation clears up the original question. In addition, the following list describes five solutions to the other problems we touched on above. Sorry, but you’re on your own in the case of Prince Musa:
- Purchase only high-quality tools made to reasonable tolerances from quality materials by genuine professional craftsmen and blacksmiths that have long-term relationships and reputations that might be damaged by shoddy quality, not mass-production factories filled with low-wage workers.
- Buy chisels and other edged handtools only from retailers (like C&S Tools) that both offer and honor a full international warranty on materials and workmanship, one that doesn’t require you to expend additional funds to benefit from. Good luck finding anyone else;
- Beware the posers on Yoogle’s GoobTube (or is it Toogle’s YoobGube? We forget) who enjoy spinning an ounce of BS into 7 minutes of visual entertainment, all without any responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or honesty of their representations;
- Beware the howls of the pustulous trolls and the chittering of the execrable orcs scuttling about in the fetid darkness of the internet forums;
- And last but not least, always remember the most reliable litmus test for veracity: Money Talks and BS Walks (see point 2 listed above).
Or, you can always try the big spoon test described above, for after all is said and done, bitter lessons stick best (ツ).
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23 thoughts on “Setting Up Japanese Chisels”
Thanks! More to come.
Very helpful and useful post. Thank you for sharing.
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Glad to see you on WordPress!
Stan, glad to have found this blog, and thanks to Jen Joy for pointing me this way. I always enjoyed, and was impressed by, the amount of information on tools you shared over at SMC. Best wishes from a hopeful student, Patrick
Patrick, Thanks for visiting and for the kind words.
Jen is a great lady and a heck of a woodworker.
If there had been more people like you at SMC, perhaps I would have stayed. But on second thought, no: Even one troll is too many if he owns the bridge.
Please Follow and check back. Please let me know how I can make the blog better, and if you think of any interesting subjects.
Thank you very much for this info, I think I accidentally sent you a message instead of commenting on the post… sigh. So I apologize for that…
Anyway, really appreciate this info. I am in the market for a new set of chisels and trying to keep all my options open and learn about Japanese chisels and it seems like there isn’t a lot (maybe any?) good info on them out there. So I really appreciate this post.
I have some questions that may be pretty basic. But what about Japanese chisels with hollow backs? Are they worth looking at? Seems like you would get to the hollow after a few years of sharpening after daily use?
Anyway, once again, thanks for this post it is really helpful!
Its a long response, but you ask an important question that many people have.
I am in the process of preparing a blog post about the details and advantages/disadvantages of Japanese chisels, but it is a BIG subject and will take some time to complete and post.
To respond to your question briefly, the hollow-ground back is standard design for all Japanese chisels, although there may be a few out there made specifically for the foreign market without this important detail.
The thing about chisels is you want them to get really sharp, to stay sharp and cut well a long time (without breaking), and you want them to be easy to sharpen. These are the 3 critical performance criteria for chisels. All handtool blades, in fact. Make no mistake on these 3 points.
It is a difficult balancing trick, especially when you consider that, while very hard steel can be made very sharp, and may hold an edge for a long time, if it is too hard, it will break (in half) and chip quickly and be difficult to sharpen.
The Western solution for the last hundred years or so has been to use a softer steel, ranging from Rc 45-55 typically. Tough, doesn’t chip easily, easy to sharpen, but the edge dents and/or rolls, and dulls quickly. Unavoidable physics. It wasn’t always like this in Europe and the US, however.
In Japan, craftsmen despise blades that dull quickly and are hard to sharpen. Time is money, and time spent sharpening is not productive. Of course, soft blades are very soon dull blades that don’t cut well at all. I think most craftsmen feel the same way given an option.
The solution Japanese craftsmen prefer is the same on that was used in Europe for centuries for economic reasons when steel was difficult to make and expensive. That is, laminate a very hard layer of steel to a softer iron (or very low-carbon steel) body and blade. The combination of hard steel and soft iron is very tough, and keeps the blade from breaking. Simple physics.
In the West, high-quality steel became relatively inexpensive in the late 1800’s, thanks in large part to John Disston the famous sawmaker who started the first tool-steel mill in America. Others get more credit but he was the first. Japan’s steel industry developed much later. In any case, with the advent of cheap steel, it became more economical to fabricate a chisel blade from a single piece of steel and differentially harden it than laminate a hard steel layer to a soft iron body. This solution works well, but to avoid breakage, the steel needs to be heat-treated a little softer. The result is the blade dulls quicker. These sort of blades were made in Europe and the US until the 1920s? Others will know this history better than me.
Nowadays, no one differentially hardens blades. Too costly. It takes real skill of the sort only real blacksmiths that demand skilled craftsman wages have. Chinese peasants don’t have skills and can`t handle the QC. The tool conglomerate’s marketing departments convinced Americans that cost and outward appearance mattered more than expensive and un-sexy performance.
Japan kept the laminated structure, and kept the extra-hard steel even after steel became cheap. The hardness of the chisel blades I sell are around Rc 65-66. Quite hard.
Japanese blacksmiths improved on the design by hollow-grinding the flat so the very hard steel layer can be sharpened easily and will remain useful for a long time It is not a new concept, but it works very well.
Also, since the steel exposed at the bevel is mostly soft iron with a thin layer of hard steel, it is easily and quickly sharpened.
So you end up with a blade that is very sharp, and stays sharp, and is easily and quickly sharpened.
One does need to learn some basic maintenance procedures, but they are not difficult.
Your question about the longevity of the hollow-grind is a good point. The key is to flatten and polish the flat (“ura” as it is called in Japan since it is really only flat/planar at the perimeter of the hollow) when the chisel is new, and then avoid sharpening the ura on anything but the finest sharpening stones, and even that just a few strokes. Nearly all of the actual abrasion is done on the bevel, so the hollow lasts a long time.
However, as the ura is worked on the stones over the years, it gradually becomes shallower, making the “land” right at the cutting edge to gradually grow wider to compensate. Not a perfect solution, but it works.
After many decades of sharpening, chisels used a lot may even lose the hollow entirely. In this case, sharpening will take a little more time, but the chisel will still function perfectly well.
If you like sharp chisels and the efficiency and performance they provide, and are willing to learn how to maintain and use them properly, then Japanese chisels (at least the hand-forged high-quality ones I sell (ツ）) are absolutely worth the trouble. They will make your woodworking more efficient. They will accelerate the advancement of your skills, The things you make with them will be of higher-quality.
Japanese woodworkers are very serious about the quality and performance of their cutting tools, and the quality of the end product. Check out what they have made over the centuries on the internet. How about Horyuji? Todaiji? Or the work of the sashimonoshi. How serious are you?
A word to the wise: Don’t waste your time and money on average tools. Buy life-time tools that will help you do better work efficiently. Buy them as you can afford them. They will pay for themselves over time, and you will not regret the purchase. My father taught me this. It was sound advice 50 years ago. It was sound advice 500 years ago. It’s sound advice now.
I hope this helps.
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. . . And the wisdom just flows. Sensei, very nice to be a student again. Your efforts are appreciated, and the bigger historical context in which you explain it certainly adds to my understanding. Patrick
Thanks, Patrick. Gosh, shucks…
Great to read your writing again Stan! I very much appreciate the time you dedicate to sharing your knowledge of tools and technique.
I’ll be checking back here regularly!
Great to hear from you! I miss our conversations.
Please continue to visit and share your comments and ideas. I value them.
It is a delight to be able to read your posts again. You have been missed by many of us who always enjoyed your informative posts.
Thanks, Jim. You are too kind. Please continue to share your thoughts here!
This page truly has all of the information and facts I needed concerning this subject and didn’t know who to ask.
Wow again! All of this blog contain should be printed in a nice book that I could keep in the shop and maybe an other copy in the living room!! I’m actually serious, I think that there is nothing like having a real book in your hand that you can flip from page to page and take notes in the margins. There is nothing in English or French(my 2 languages) that are that detailed on the subject of Japanese tools!!
Thank you so much for taking the time to educate us on the proper way of doing things!!
I’m glad I found this site!! And even more glad I bought some of your chisels!!
Thanks for the kind words. Maybe there will be a book someday, but that seems too much like real work!
Enjoy the tools and best of luck in all your endeavors.
I ordered a few different items from Stan, including four bench chisels. There surely was a temptation to simply take them for a ride once they showed up just a few days after ordering. But instead, I went through the whole chisel set-up routine. That was time well spent. Not only did it allow me to become much more familiar with the working parts of the chisels (and to understand the concept of chisels with “working parts” other than simply a sharp bevel attached to a handle), but it gave me the necessary insight, motivation, and familiarity with the process to get cracking on making and installing some handles on several new handle-less chisel blades I had come across.
Stan’s directions tell you everything you need to know. Really, just very comprehensive. The one area where I ran into trouble was re-finishing the handles and being able to properly mushroom the top after installing the crown. Even though I was not putting the finish (1 to 1 Danish Oil to thinner) on the top of the chisel, it kept getting there through capillary action or off my rubber gloves or something. This made it difficult (as firmly cautioned in the instructions) to get the top of the handle to mushroom. I eventually solved the problem by taping not just the top of the handle, but also the length of handle covered by the crown. The kept the finish off the top of the handle, however I had erred before.
Also, just want to say that the burnt-silk finish, properly done, is an interesting and attractive finish. I put that on the other chisels I had largely because my stray crowns and kuchigane on hand were pretty rough. Some electrolysis on some, wire wheel and buffer on others, and they were ready to heat up and cover in old silk neck ties. Yes, I did burn my finger once. And I did make the house briefly smell a little bad, and probably really good air flow is best for the lungs as well as not offending the spouse. And certainly the last couple of fittings looked better than the first couple. But in the end, it works great, seems to be pretty durable, and provides a useful end to some badly out of fashion ties I had around.
Thanks, Stan. Looking forward to putting them to work. Time to get started on making a handle for the gennou.
Finishing up my first chisel setups. It was not so bad the second day. Like taking a break from a difficult puzzle and coming back, it seems much easier after a rest.
Just to be sure, when you say do not apply to the crown end, does that include the cylindrical outside of the handle grip, or just the flat where the hammer strikes? I did not apply it to either, I figured over time as the wood is compressed and the crown inches down, the bare spot underneath it would best be left unfinished so it doesn’t crack.
But being my first time with this process, I am not sure whether I should’ve applied it to the area the crown covers. Better to fix it now if so.
I assume you are talking about applying finish to the handle. In answer, I think it’s more efficient to apply it everywhere, even under the crown, all at the same time. And since, if you use the finish technique I recommend there is no surface finish it won’t change dimensions. But as you wrote, it isn’t necessary under the crown or ferrule or, for that matter, anywhere. Some people ( including your humble servant for many years) prefer no finish. The important point is to not apply finish to the endgrain at the striking end of the handle.
Yes, I forgot to say finish. With the method you described and very fine sandpaper, it feels pretty close to no finish anyway.
Question regarding the re-finishing of the Katsura and Kuchigane.
Is there enough carbon in the steel (on the chisels you sell at least) so that it could be a problem to quench them or we must let them air cool after burning the oil (assuming I do your suggested oil finish)? Alternatively, would heating the steel until it is blue and quenching them in oil be a problem?
Charles-Antoine: Excellent question! Kuchigane and katsura are made of mild-steel, lacking enough carbon to harden significantly even if heat-treated, and not hard enough to be significantly softened by heating or annealing. Heat-bluing is traditionally how many were given their color, as a matter of fact. I think chemical bluing is more common nowadays to reduce costs. Quenching in oil to create a black surface is absolutely fine.
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