All times are good for those who know how to work and have the tools to do so.Carlos Slim
The Ootsuki nomi is the largest of the Japanese chisels. It is essentially a scaled-up tsukinomi paring chisel, equivalent to what is called a “slick” in the West.
The name is written 大突鑿 which is the same as tsukinomi with the addition of the character 大 meaning “large,” or “ big.” Besides “Oo “ this character can also be pronounced “dai.” If you examine this very basic Chinese character you may notice it looks like a man with his legs spread and arms extended, as if he is describing to his buddies the size of the fish that got away. At least that’s how I remembered the meaning when I was a young man in Japan many moons ago.
So the name translates directly to “large paring chisel.”
If you have never done timber framing, a brief explanation may be helpful.
When doing production work (versus hobby stuff) one cuts the pieces and parts of most open joints using circular saws. Handsaws are also necessary for some cuts, but for most situations a circular saw is much quicker and less tiring. There’s a lot of wood that needs cutting after all and only so many hours of daylight.
Mortises are typically cut with portable electric hollow-chisel machines. There are other options such as portable chainsaw mortisers, stationary router machines, or the amazing German Hundegger machines. http://hundeggerusa.com
I once worked for a Japanese company that cut entire structural frames using CAD driven CNC machines in a factory. In that situation however, the CNC machinary, while very precise and very quick, was so expensive and so inflexible that the building had to be designed around the repertoire of joints and sizes the machinary could cut rather than the joints required to make the best building. And it could not handle significant dimensional irregularities in the timbers used, so only machined glulams were suitable. A very limiting endeavor indeed. The sort of frame the gentlemen in the pictures below are cutting was simply impossible for CNC equipmennt. I left that job after 2 years.
Sharp tools guided by human hands, controlled by human minds with years of experience are more flexible.
Indeed, handtools like axes, adzes, chisels and handsaws are necessary especially when doing “ round work” in logs or when the design calls for irregular-shaped timbers. Paring chisels are also needed to achieve the relatively precise tolerances and smooth surfaces such work demands.
Ootsuki nomi are relatively heavier than other Japanese paring chisel with larger diameter and longer handles. They are built to resist the large bending moment forces created by a large man gripping the handle with both hands and pushing like a plow horse to pare wood. This is the task this chisel excels at.
Most Japanese carpenters that use this tool buy them in sets of two: a wide 48~54mm wide one and a narrower 24mm chisel, although other sizes are available. I own a set by Kiyotada, one with a 54mm blade and an extra-large handle intended for working especially large North American timbers.
The wider width of the two in the set is used most frequently for paring tenons and saddles.
The 24mm is used for paring standard rectangular mortise, dovetail mortises and dovetail tenons, besides a hundred other tasks. In cross section, it is essentially a large shinogi usunomi chisel to help it get into tight places.
When paring large surfaces with the wider ootuskinomi chisel the hollow ground ura may allow bumps to escape paring requiring multiple passes to knock them down. This is easy to overcome with practice, but some people prefer an ura with not a single, but multiple grinds with lands between each hollow-ground area to help index the blade. I believe this is one of the few situations where these multiple ura, called mistuura or “triple-ura” are useful.
Some people like the unusual appearance of mitsuura. I must admit they look sexy in wide blades, but they have their downsides . The first downside is that mitsuura blades can take a little longer to sharpen. Second, they can be a little harder to keep flat. Neither of these are difficult problems to overcome. But the third downside is more problematic.
Because the three hollow-ground areas are shallower and have less total volume than a single ura, they tend to wear out and disappear sooner. This is not a serious deficiency unless you use and sharpen a mitsuura chisel a lot, or have a heavy hand when sharpening the ura. The negative impacts are minor in most cases.
I just want you to be aware of these peculiarities and to be gentle when sharpening mitsuura blades.
These are not chisels most people will ever have need of but as long as humans are doing timber framing, there will always be a demand for this unique tool.
Links to Previous Posts in this Series
Please share your insights and comments with everyone in the comments section below. If you have questions or would like to learn more about our tools, please use the questions form located immediately below.